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转发的 艺术报纸

如何弥补慈善、捐赠和游客收入的损失

“That was then; this is now.” A blunt expression often used in negotiations when one party wants to make clear to the other that previously reasonable expectations are unlikely to be met because of some adverse and unalterable change in circumstances. It is an expression that the cultural sector’s leadership is likely to hear frequently over the next few years as it seeks to navigate a radically changed economic and political map. The global recession that we have entered will not just knock the froth off things; it will permanently reconfigure the cultural landscape. 这可能会发生得更慢一些,而且这些事件可能不会像冰岛破产那样引人注目, 国际银行体系的崩溃或美国抵押贷款行业的失败, 但实际上,起作用的潜在力量也同样强大, 它们是相同的力.

这种观察几乎没有启示性. The past five years of the decade-long upswing of the art market – predominantly the contemporary art market – has been largely speculative in nature, and the market correction that we are experiencing has been predicted by most parties who do not have a vested interest in the prolongation of the bubble: a period of declining volumes and prices and a shrinking of the market’s entire infrastructure – galleries, 拍卖行, 艺术博览会和附属出版物, 和公共关系. (在2月,标准 & 例如,Poor 's给苏富比的信用评级为BBB.收缩的规模和持续时间将与更大范围衰退的规模和持续时间直接相关. 艺术品市场总体上是不情愿但服从经济发展的. 给det365首页一些未来的指示, 艺术品市场上一次经历大萧条是在1987年股市崩盘之后. 艺术品市场随后下跌,但跌幅大于股票市场, 终于在1993年触底, 房价平均下跌了56%. 当时的市场比较清淡, 因此更不稳定, 但当前的衰退范围更广、更深, and likely to last longer; and the fall is from a higher speculative peak.

世界经济衰退对博物馆的影响将更加微妙,但同样深远. The conspicuous consumption that has fuelled the art market is umbilically linked to the conspicuous philanthropy that has fuelled much of the growth in contemporary art museums throughout the US, 中东, 东南亚和欧洲. 这些机构是不断增长的和, 对许多人来说, 全世界的贫富差距在道德上是站不住脚的. 这让他们严重依赖, 过度协调和关注, 一小部分选民的长期意愿或支持能力都很值得怀疑. 这个行业已经不成比例地依赖于非常富有的人, 以及博物馆作为将财富转化为地位的机制所发挥的作用, 从地位到权力.

大多数艺术界的筹款人都坦率地承认,在过去十年里,捐赠金字塔的规模缩小了很多, 越来越依赖于越来越少的非常富有的捐赠者. 在俄罗斯, 印度和中东, the pyramid is practically a sheer-faced column – the museum sector is to a large extent the domain of the newly super-wealthy. 迅速获得的财富几乎不可避免地具有投机性质,这可能导致财富的戏剧性逆转, 因此慷慨. 有趣的是, the success of President Obama’s electoral campaign in using web-based social networking to secure smaller donations is the talk of the charitable sector internationally. 但艺术博物馆并不仅仅是缺乏技术知识来扩大对捐赠群体的接触. 他们也缺乏激励自己的论据, 这可以从美国国会对《det365首页》中有关文化部门条款的反应中看出. 博物馆花了大量的时间和精力来区分上层的捐赠者. 随着炫耀性消费的减少, 投机性财富减少,优先事项调整, the social class that art museums have smooched with most intimately is also the group most likely to sit out the next few dances.

除了全天候的慈善支持,任何事情的紧缩都是, 当然, compounded by dramatic drops of 30-50% in endowment income (whether museums’ own or of the trusts and foundations on which they rely). The precipitous drop in Brandeis Uni­versity’s endowment led to its president’s ill thought-out plan to close the Rose Museum and sell its collection. 一个更狡猾的计划可能会吸引较少的关注. It is also compounded by cuts in public expenditure as local and national governments enter a prolonged period of austerity, 反映了他们税基的减少和财政干预需求的增加. UK Culture Secretary Andy Burnham said in January: “All parts of government have to hear that message and live in the real world. 有些人可能不喜欢它,但艺术也必须生活在现实世界中. 没有人能对正在发生的事情免疫.在美国, 加州政府寄去的是借据,而不是它所欠的退税, and most state and city arts departments—far more significant in the US than federal arts funding – have either implemented cuts or warned that they are on their way. 裁员, 休假(无薪假), 在美国,较小的博物馆和画廊里,减薪和缩短公开开放时间是很常见的.

Museums of art have tended to rely more heavily on spectacle than programme to attract visitors – loud headlines rather than a fine print of involvement in the community. This is despite exhortations by trade associations such as the American Association of Museums in the US and the Museums Association in the UK that their members adopt agendas that increase and parade their social relevance, 还有无数的推广和社会参与项目.

在公共支出优先排序的痛苦过程中, 那就是政治支持的前景, a sense of obligation to sustain cultural institutions by civic leadership – is greatly diminished both by the realities of public expenditure constraint and by the growing sentiment of politicians that the art world, 至少在目前的活动规模上是这样, 难道这不是充满卫生危机的公民议程的核心吗, 住房, 就业, 教育与环境.

业务预算(展览项目)将会是预算紧缩的主要负担, 教育项目, 保护, 研究及策展职能). 这是因为, 短的关闭, 与扩建基础设施(新建筑)相关的固定成本, 翅膀等.)都是固定的. 正是从较高的固定成本基线平衡账簿的需要,造成了痛苦. The drift is clear: we are entering a period when all but the most privileged and well-connected of art museums are going to come under very real financial constraints and many will be doing so with a weakened safety-net of well-disposed stakeholders. 除了将艺术品归还给大屠杀受害者和偶尔对歹徒的谴责, 博物馆在大多数情况下显示出采取有效集体行动的能力有限. Industry-wide responses to problems (analogous to those for banks or the automotive industry) would require an appetite for solidarity that does not come naturally, 即使该行业在政府中找到了更愿意倾听的人.

因此,对这些艰难环境的大部分反应将局限于个别博物馆, 或者是小型的博物馆联盟, 可以做. 博物馆的董事会和董事相当合理, 鉴于他们的核心任务是管理,非常保守, 也许不合理, 被同行的认可所激励. 因此, 替代优雅但不可逆转的衰落的激进方案——比如合并, 搬迁, 重组, 资源共享——只有当一个机构面临迫在眉睫的关闭时,才可能被考虑作为最后的手段. 到那个时候, 解决方案实施起来要困难得多, 随着时间, 所需的资金和组织都已枯竭. 正如黑格尔所说,“密涅瓦的猫头鹰在黄昏飞行”. 它是有趣的, 如果不完全舒服的话, to speculate on some of the fault lines that are likely to grow as the pressure caused by the triangulation of the dark forces of speculative expansion, 经济衰退和公民授权的削弱会加剧.

这里有三个可能的想法. 第一个, 戏剧性和竞争性的物理扩展和大规模的临时展览, 在某种意义上, 取代了有效的社区参与议程. These strategies have served as a way of generating buzz and money while interest in the traditional mission of the art museum was waning to the point where it was insufficient to generate the funds required. These strategies are now stalling because of their expense; the contraction of the philanthropic and public sector funds and the cultural tourist market on which they are premised; and the diminishing returns the strategies secure in a crowded, “赢者通吃”市场. 艺术博物馆的议程将不得不转向寻找可行的替代品来替代这些战马,并与它们一起, 博物馆领导所需的技能也将发生变化.

第二个, 在寻找资源, 探索将收藏品资本化的方法的愿望将继续增长. The straightforward fiat that is the current international norm – no deaccessioning unless you spend proceeds on more art – will either be finessed or ignored under the pressure of financial realities.

第三, 博物馆接受了他们不能单独做的事实, 他们将比以往更深入、更认真地一起探索:收藏分享, 联合收购, 池保护资源, 以及汇集策展人的任命. 博物馆经济日益全球化,这些趋势的影响将是全球性的. 对激进替代方案的开放探索是一种阴郁的选择, in which the energies and ingenuities of the sector are devoted increasingly to the support of a dysfunctional pseudo-mission: that of maintaining appearances at any cost, 即使博物馆变成了某种“活死人”的组织, in which any capacity for aesthetic or intellectual endeavour is sacrificed to the goal of keeping the institutional ego protected.

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