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转发的 艺术报纸 on 《det365首页》

2001年6月, 艺术报纸 headlined an article that I wrote titled “Museum boom will be followed by bust.这一论断在当时比现在更具争议性. The long period of growth in activities and facilities in the 1990s was not matched by a commensurate growth in net assets–that is, 在组织的资产负债表中.

事实上,博物馆资产负债表上资产的名义价值往往具有误导性. 例如,对该行业的投资, in new galleries – is effectively overstated on the books in the absence of any secondary market in second-hand museum extensions on which the nominal value could be realized if it came to the crunch. 在那些集合大写的情况下, then the stated value is only realized at considerable risk to the standing of the institution.

为数不多的几家机构利用他们的收藏品作为抵押品来产生流动性, 比如密尔沃基艺术博物馆, have run into trouble when what they have assumed to be a cash-flow problem turns out to be to a cash problem. 到2000年4月市场见顶的时候, 博物馆, 有点像网络公司, 这是一个过度扩张和资本不足的经济部门吗, 易受净收入和净支出差额微小变化的影响.

博物馆在收入和支出方面经历了巨大的不利变化. This has become known in philanthropic circles as the “perfect storm” in which endowment income, 企业赞助, 基金会资助, 来自税收的公共资金, individual philanthropy and visitor numbers (and therefore ticket income and ancillary earned income) have all decreased, 虽然成本增加了. 有三组成本尤其上升:

  • 第一个, the cost of running museum buildings has swollen as a result of the physical expansions themselves. This cost-push continues to filter through today because of the number of projects in the long pipeline associated with capital projects in general and capital projects in the cultural sector in particular.
  • 其次,与巡回展览相关的保险和其他费用已经飞涨. Museums’ insurance premiums have increased between 50% and 100% in the geo-political aftermath of Sept. 11, 2001.
  • 第三, 辅助编程, 特别是在教育和有关外联等领域, 随着博物馆社会议程的扩大,它们都有所增长吗. 博物馆和图书馆det365首页研究所最近报道, 例如, that the median museum expenditure on K-12 educational programs increased from 3% to 12% of operating budgets between 1996 and 2001.

董事会和员工正尽其所能做出回应. 在短期内,它们是:

  • 取消, 裁员或, 他们在这个过程中处于什么阶段, 推迟扩张计划(例如, 弗兰克·盖里设计的纽约古根海姆博物馆的建筑, 洛杉矶县博物馆, 洛杉矶儿童博物馆, 芝加哥艺术学院, 波士顿美术博物馆, 丹佛艺术博物馆).
  • 缩减展览计划和, 在边缘, making safer choices (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco and San Francisco Museum of Modern Art).
  • 冻结招聘和解雇员工(底特律艺术学院, 古根海姆再次, 匹兹堡卡内基博物馆).

所有这些都是对困难时期理性而务实的短期回应, 对许多人来说,这就足够了. 最不受影响的是那些拥有可以动用的储备的国家, “董事会指定”的基金,不受捐助者意图的法律限制. Also protected are those that have boards that can position their institutions effectively vis-à-vis private and public funders, 所以他们的经营损失是, 实际上, 承销. 这两个类别包括包括盖蒂博物馆在内的“一级部门”, 大都会博物馆, 费城, 克利夫兰, 纽约现代艺术博物馆和芝加哥艺术学院.

但是在美国大约3000家注册博物馆中,有许多是在美国注册的.S. are not in this privileged position – and most macroeconomic forecasters believe the current squeeze is set to last for two to three years. 屏住呼吸的时间很长. The instinct of most institutions is to try to accommodate tough times by shaving a little off everywhere. 这是公平的,它不要求人们在优先事项上做出艰难的选择. This works well for minor adjustments, particularly where there is clearly “fat” to be squeezed out. But administrative liposuction works less well if 博物馆 are already fairly lean–at least in terms of staffing – and where more than incremental adjustments are required.

其中一个风险是创造一种“活死人”制度, 其中可变成本(程序, 展览等.)被不成比例地挤压,因为固定成本是固定的. Many 博物馆 in the sector are therefore going to need to take more radical steps if they are to thrive rather than simply survive in some semi-inert limbo, 这是通常的非营利性选择,而不是真正的关门. 当然,问题是,采取什么样的措施?

针对不同任务的区域的处方, 规模, 观众, donor and user base and financial circumstance risk being generalized to the point of banality or of widely varying relevance. 但这里是:

Museums need to take an informed and realistic view as to the most likely scenario they will face with respect to trends in their contributed and earned income and plan around that scenario, rather than the invariably more upbeat accounts they use for fundraising and other promotional purposes. 规划和招标, 唉, 这不是一回事, 如果你屈服于你自己的花言巧语,你将计划一个错误的招股说明书.

那些看, 实际, grounds for believing that resources are going to be constant or declining are going to have to face up to the possibility of doing fewer things but doing them better, concentrating on what they believe to be their core areas and stripping away accretions of responsibility accumulated in response to historic funding opportunities.

管理, 奖学金, collecting and outreach to the formal and informal educational sectors – various forms of social engagement all require different skills and resources. 所有的机构能覆盖所有的基础,并给予它们同等的优先权吗? 选择是困难的事实并不意味着它们是不可能的.

以降低其在核心领域的效率, the process by which the balance between mission and market is struck needs to be articulated clearly internally, 和资助者, 游客和用户, 这样削减和再分配就不会被认为是任意的攻击. Radical adjustments take a lot of pre-selling in the politicized environment in which 博物馆 operate.

Funders in turn need to be – and are slowly becoming–much more aware of the current pressure on the sector and sympathetic to the need to focus. They are still inadvertently encouraging under-funded expansion through capital grants and many more “innovative” funding programs that cover the variable costs but not the fixed costs of new activities – ”coercive philanthropy,这是导演兼教育家罗伯特·布鲁斯坦(Robert Brustein)发人深省的一句话.

劳动收入策略也需要有更好的基础. It is difficult to make money without underlying assets that have a commercially exploitable value (intellectual or physical property), the resources to invest in its development and the ability to apply relevant entrepreneurial skills. 这三个都是必需的. 与其步履蹒跚地进入游戏,不如不进入.

Contributed income – primarily from individuals – is and will remain the principal fuel for most traditional 博物馆 in the U.S.

有, 在其最简单的, no alternative to long-term cultivation of donors who have the capacity to give or get and who are enthused by the mission, 机构的价值观和活动. 博物馆已经知道如何做到这一点, 更重要的是, 有毅力坚持下去吗, 会比那些没有的人有更好的表现吗. No amount of displacement theorizing or hand-wringing will make this highly unoriginal observation any less true.

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